The influence of the German language is discussed on foreign geographic names adopted by the Polish language. As a result of Polish-German linguistic contacts names have filtered from German into Polish on a lasting basis through the mediation of German, such as Paryz (Paris) (with z instead of s), Szkanija, Szkocyja, Szwecja, Hiszpanija (Scania, Scotland, Sweden, Spain) (with 'sh' instead of s in the consonant combinations sk, sw, sp > 'sh'k, 'sh'w, 'sh'p), and the ethnonyms Szwed [Swede] and Francuz [Frenchman]. A separate problem is presented by geographical names appearing in Polish historical sources that show German influence as a result of medieval German colonization. This affects names from Bohemia, historical Prussia and Lithuania, historical Livonia (Liwlandy > Liwlanty > Liflanty > Inflanty, also Kurlandy, later Kurlandyja (Courland)) as well as German names of towns from the area of Transylvania that came into existence as a result of medieval Saxon colonization. In Polish sources from the 18th century Germanized names of towns also appear from the area of Slovenia, Bohemia, and Slovakia, which at that time were within the borders of Austria. Other choronyms containing the morpheme land (e. g., Niderland, Holandyja, Zelandyja, Jutlandya) are in Polish as a result of the spread of this morpheme through the mediation of the German language.
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