A review is made of cognitive fallacies as statements in which the observer does not register the real situation without being aware of it. Cognitive fallacies arise out of an inadequate acceptance of cognitive claims on the processing of events in everyday life. Fallacies occurring most frequently are genetic fallacies, arguments about people, argumentation through contrition, fallacies of composition, fallacies of false cause, fallacies of inadequate definition, argument from a consensus of nations, argument of 'the cudgel', argument of authority, argument of judgment, argument out of respect, argument out of ignorance, ignorance out of refutation, requirement to meet principles, fallacies of multiple questions, fallacies of ambiguity, amphiboly and the argument of the slippery slope. The discussion bears on the impact of cognitive fallacies on the validity of deductive thinking (particularly in view of meta-deduction).
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.