In the Ukrainian national program, the phenomenon of tradition maintained a long priority before considerations about modernisation. Already before 1918 it is possible to observe an extraction of historical and ethnographic traditions serving for the purpose of national movement. Hrushevsky influenced the entire conception of Ukrainian state-forming traditions - one related to the heritage of the princely tradition and the other one linked to the Cossackdom. In the early 20s, the leadership of the Soviet Ukraine continued in its efforts of reinterpretation and thus also of controlling the most substantial component of the Ukraine's historical tradition, which had to make the resources of the ideological offensive and to conceal other possible interpretations. The attitude of Ukrainians from Galicia, Bukovina, and Subcarpathian Ruthenia towards the principles of modernisation became a complicated matter in terms of their incorporation into different states since it were these foreign state's authorities which carried out the policy of modernisation. The Ukrainians themselves could strive for some kind of modernisation of their own national groups in the interest of increasing the effectiveness of their public activities.
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