The article constitutes a review of dilemmas and problems that accompanied the efforts of all Polish governments after 1989 designed to create a new farmers' insurance system. The Farmers' Insurance Fund (KRUS) was established during the early period of introduction of an economic programme launched by the government of Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki, which is generally know as the Balcerowicz plan. This programme proved to be particularly difficult and painful - in respect of its social effects, for agriculture. It may seem surprising that in the conditions of implementation of the Balcerowicz plan the then government adopted a draft law envisaging continued subsidising of the farmers' insurance system and related costs from the state budget. It can be stated that in this case the government adopted as an imperative the need to protect against the negative effects of transformation elderly people who, because of their vocation as farmers, had minimal chances to acquire new qualifications and look for new jobs.
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