The authoress aimed at analysing and evaluating the diversification of rural population's incomes and, in particular, at analysing the low incomes. The main questions are those pertaining to the scope and depth of income poverty, to its differentiation in the group of farming population and in other social-vocational groups. Objective and subjective poverty were adopted as the main analytical categories.The incomes of the farming population were analyzed having regard to the fact that income is not the sole indicator of the standard of living. However, incomes are the principal factor shaping consumption and they represent a simplified measure serving to assess the standard of living as they constitute the essential condition for the feeling of satisfaction, usefulness or well-being. In turn, incomes allocated to the operation of a farm decide about the possibilities of its development. The analysis covered the socio-economic groups of households run by farmers and by employees owning farms. Unlike in the case of other vocational groups, such households are characterised by a specific combination through which the functions of a farm as a place of work become merged with the functions of a household producing an entity called a family farm. Because of this interdependence the point of reference is not only the farm and the farmer himself but the household and all its members who may have different sources of income.