Setting out from F. Braudel's theoretical basis of breaking up history into planes the author puts the question what kind of a process is modernisation in Hungary in respect of duration. Before suggesting an answer at first he clarifies what the concept of modernisation mean and what are the indicators of modernity. Centre and periphery are the two most important factors in the process, and the development of the former one is significantly achieved to the detriment of the latter one. Belatedness means the emulation of external pattern in the periphery, particularly in the globalised world economy. There is, however, no mechanical and linear development and it is not possible to transform a society by imported ideas and institutions. Modernisation can only unfold on the basis of the conditions of the given country. Next the author surveys the process of Hungarian modernisation and states that the country has become one without authority in the first decade of the 21st century. Further on he studies how far the political system is capable of and willing to sense and manage the problems, conflicts and changes of society. He studies political structure and culture and its pre-modern elements in this context. He finds that the inadequate elements of the state organisation and of the party system hinder modernisation. Among others the party system also does not form a modern party structure. The parties move along a forced track in the grave economic situation, their social base is uncertain and they are burdened by 'isms'. The author deals with the rule of law, legal security and the behaviour of the authorities and people as well as legal operation in a separate passage. Based on the election and governmental practice of the past twenty years he finds that anomic social phenomena do not promote the process of modernisation. For the time being modes of the solution of the economic crisis and the completion of modernisation are still awaited or are uncertain.
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