Latin is the language of the longest influence on Polish (11 centuries). For all that time, Latin was the language of the intellectual elite. The earliest Latin borrowings came in the Pre-Polish period. In the Old Polish period, indirect borrowings were predominant (through Czech and/or German), while, In the Middle Polish period, Latin influences appear on every level of the language system. Then there was a kind of language polyphony in public communication, associated with the processes of Latin and Italian borrowings' acquisition. In the history of Polish, Latin has satisfied the need to name new designates, the need of verbal expression, as well as the need to produce speech in sophisticated style and identity with sophisticated, i.e. Mediterranean culture.
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