In the culminating and late middle ages funny scenes, the so called droleries, appear in the borders of illuminated manuscripts. Their problems are not explained completely; they seem to contain hidden spiritual meanings. Besides singing birds, which are symbols of the unearthly sphere, figures appear most oft en who were taken as negative in middle-ages - owls, apes, beasts of prey, dragons, and clowns. The figures of antique mythology were perceived as negative too; the cults connected with them were perceived as demoniacism by the Christian society. Droleries are usually placed in borders which are decorated with an acanth. Th e acanth in time became a symbol of victory over death. It can be also interpreted as Christ's crown of thorns. In this way the spirit of medieval symbolism indicated that negative forces are driven to the margin and defeated by Christ's victim.
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