Processes of long duration led to a division of the European space according to two criteria: the cultural and the economic one. The cultural criterion manifests itself as a division into the Catholic and the Protestant cultural realm, while the economic criterion consists in delineating the east-European economic complex. Protestantism and western European status are synonyms of Europe's centre of development. The remaining European territories received developmental stimuli by way of cultural import. The impact of Communism on the economy and society in Poland consisted, among others, in a renaissance of some feudal institutions and patterns of conduct. European geopolitics led to the emergence of so-called ideological regions, which are discussed on the examples of Poland and Germany.
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