After the end of the Cold War, the geopolitical situation of Sub-Saharan Africa changed and many donors of development aid started to actively promote democratization on the continent. This paper examines the aid conditionality as a tool of democracy promotion. The author argues that negative conditionality (withdrawal of aid) may facilitate democratization only in cases of fragile African dictatorships that experience social turmoil and are strongly dependent on aid. More effective is the positive aid conditionality, that is, aiding newly established democracies in consolidation of their economies and political systems. The paper also examines the scope of aid conditionality. According to the data, democracies and liberalized autocracies receive averagely twice more aid than non-liberalized autocracies. In other words, most Western countries do not distinguish between superficially liberalized and truly democratic countries in their aid policies. At the same time, France and some international organizations do not condition aid on the progress of democracy at all
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