The essential characteristics of rational, dialectical and critical thinking are defined in relation to wisdom. Thinking influences wisdom through the quality of decision-making in the choice of strategies suitable for solving rather complex and badly defined problems. Rational thinking is closely related to a search for optimum alternatives and should be unbiased and objective. Dialectical thinking refers to knowledge of processes comparing or synthesizing facts, standpoints and opposite viewpoints. Critical thinking activates abilities and strategies that enhance the probability of desirable outputs, where definition of the desirable depends on an individual's varying goals and values. Acceptance of the principles of critical thinking considerably contributes to the regulatory role of wisdom. Critical thinking, together with wisdom, endeavors to bring men to acquire and use information more efficiently not solely in favor of selected groups, but also humanity as a whole.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.