The criticism of common agricultural policy is fostered first of all by supporters of a liberal trend in the economy. They highlight, inter alia, wastage of public money through artificial support for the agricultural sector. An alternative is put forward, i.e. an increase of expenditure on R&D so that Europe could stand the international competition. However, the question arises if the rural areas of the Community void of any financial support (due to elimination of the common agricultural policy) will be able to compete with the 'rest of the world'. Will the cities of Europe (coping with the problem of unemployment caused by the unemployed escaping from rural areas, being deprived of living prospects) be competitive? The article is an attempt to answer the above question. The authoress also proposes a thesis that the new Common Agricultural Policy could enhance the development of the European Union by promoting the development of rural areas.