The results of much contemporary research of Polish adolescents in secondary schools prove that the value most cherished by them is the family. The aim of the presented research was an attempt to partly explain this phenomenon. Values are understood herein in accordance with M. Rokeach's (1973) theory. Shaping the value system has been acknowledged as the accomplishment of one of the developmental tasks during the adolescent period in compliance with the theory of R. Havighurst (1972). P. Brzozowski's (1996) Polish adaptation of the M. Rokeach RVS Value Survey as well as P. Brzozowski's (1995) Scheler's Value Scale was applied in the research. The research was conducted in two stages: pilot study stage (in 2000) on a group of 169 persons aged 18 years and the proper research stage (in 2004) on a group of 368 persons of which 177 were aged 15 and 191 persons were aged 18. Results of the pilot study served to construct a model of dependencies between value preferences, which was then positively verified in the proper research stage. Path model analysis was used for this. The results obtained clearly indicate a patriotic context of the high preference of the family value. The traditionally Polish relationship of the values of God, fatherland and family stemming from Sarmatism and Romanticism, visibly organise the value systems structures of adolescents. Moreover, the verified model takes into account the dependencies between the preferences of the values of God, fatherland and family and moral and intellectual values.