From its very beginning, the young Czechoslovak Republic had to delimitate itself in regard with unsettled circumstances in the Central and East European region. With assistance from governmental places, the Czech lands became one of the main centres of the Ukrainian exile life in the interwar period, which would have been impossible without the personal attitude of President Masaryk. Approach to the Ukrainian issue, as a political programme, passed through a test in Carpathian Ruthenia, where the Czechoslovak governments struggled. To the mid-20th century, they were pro-Russia oriented, but later they preferred the Ukrainian course. However, they viewed each manifestation of Ukrainian nationalism as an element threatening with separatism. The Czech political scene was divided in its attitude towards the Ukrainian issue, distributed according to its right-wing and left-wing policies. The socialists, close to the Castle, approved of the Ukrainians' right to their self-determination, while the conservative forces preferred Russia within its old boundaries. This scheme corresponded with the pre-war ideological division of the Czech policy. With the 30's, the Czech view of the Ukrainian emigration and its ambitions became politicized. The international situation, uneasy cohabitation with the Polish neighbour, growing aspirations of the Czech foreign policy to become closer to the Soviet Russia and escalation of nationalistic disputes in the easternmost region of the republic proved to be the main factors. Shortly before the German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia, Prague had to witness victory of the Ukrainian ideals in the autonomous Carpathian Ruthenia.
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