For several years archaeological excavations have been conducted in Sudan, in the Fourth Nile Cataract region, in consequence of the construction of a new dam on the Nile River after Sudanese Antiquity Service decided to start intense archaeological research in this area. One of the expeditions working in the area of the Fourth Cataract is a Polish Mission organized by the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology and Poznan Archaeological Museum, directed by Marek Chlodnicki. The area explored by the Polish expedition is located on the western Nile bank, between the village of Shemkiya in the north and Hagar El-Beida and Es-Sadda in the south. In November 2007, the site noted as El-Ar P1 was discovered. It was placed in the vicinity of a modern village on the hill close to the desert. It is a remarkably interesting site. The beginning of human settlement here can be dated to the fourth millennium B.C., which can be proved by caliciform beakers. Around 2050 -1750 B.C., i.e. in the Middle Kerma period, the site served as a cemetery for the local population. At that time the grave constructions accompanied by stone chapels were built. An Egyptian scarab, made of faience, discovered near to A construction shows another chronological context (c. 1200 - 650 B.C.). For the last time the site was used as cemetery in the Late Meroitic period (c. 150 - 350 A.D.).
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