The popularity of dependency-based syntax has grown in the last thirty years, in spite of the fact that phrase-structure-based descriptions have prevailed in so-called mainstream linguistics. Two factors are important here: (i) a growing interest in semantics, which results in the penetration of dependency-based notions into the original phrase-structure-based grammars, (ii) dependency offers a more perspicuous view of the sentence structure and as such has played an important role in computational linguistics. We first summarize the basic tenets of both theories mentioned above (Section 2) and point out the reasons for the growing interest in dependency-based grammars (Section 3). In Section 4, attention is focused on one of the issues often quoted as problematic in dependency-based analysis, namely cases in which the surface order of words is not in accordance with the condition of projectivity. The analysis, based on material from the Prague Dependency Treebank, supports the claim made by Functional Generative Description that this issue can be adequately solved by postulating a dependency-based underlying (tectogrammatical) syntactic structure that meets the condition of projectivity and by describing the relationship between this structure and the surface word order on the basis of certain contextual conditions.
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