An exploration of the premises underlying the reorientation of Polish social and political thought on Ukraine needs to take into account the decisive impact of the ideas of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic campaign and the 'Zeitgeist' of freedom, so vividly reflected in Romanticist literature and thought, conspiracy movements, and uprisings. It was after the fall of the November Uprising that the reorientation took place among Polish and Ukrainian former insurrectionists in emigration. Consequently, the issue of the Polish attitude towards Ukraine featured prominently in the manifestos of the Polish Democratic Society and the 'Human' Group (Gromada Human) as well as in the émigré press, and social and political commentaries. This was chiefly the result of renunciation of the earlier phobic attitude of the gentry combined with a general opening to Ukrainians and recognition of their aspirations and struggle for independence.
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