The article concentrates on the controversial questions of functional semantics, and namely the semantic distinctness of words in linguistic communication. The author distinguishes two levels of meaning variants: polysemy (semantic mutations) and diasemy (semantic modifications). Based on the example of possessive pronouns the author argues for the necessity of using the notion of semantic invariant in linguistics. The invariant category is realized in the language system as ambisemy, i. e. the reference to cognitive base of the linguistic subjects, which has nomothetic or empirical character during interpretation of compositional signs (especially formal indiscreet, semantically ambivalent). Two components are distinguished of the structure of meaning: endosemantic, which in case of the derived words is identical with their internal form, as well as exosemantic, which shows the sender's knowledge on the subject of standard relation between referents of word group components.
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