The new programme of cultural sociology (as distinguished from sociology of culture) on the one hand, and cultural studies on the other, constitute a point of reference for an analysis of contemporary relevance of Florian Znaniecki's culturalism and his theory of cultural systems. Znaniecki's rejection of the terms of 'society' and 'culture' in general was associated with the transition to studies of the dynamics of cultural systems. The article shows the fundamental difference in the aims realized by praxis-oriented cultural studies, as well as studies of radical changes in culture (the cultural turn), in regard to the programme of cultural sciences. The links between modern cultural sociology, including strong programme of cultural sociology, and Znaniecki's culturalism are emphasized. This culturalism radically differs both from anthropological culturalism and from political culturalism, which leads to a policy of multiculturalism. One of important principles, common for modern cultural sociology and Znaniecki's culturalism, is the principle of autonomy of culture in regard to social systems. Arguments in favour of further development of the philosophy of culturalism and cultural theory in the sense proposed by Znaniecki are presented.
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