The aim of the paper is to demonstrate moral and material evil included in the work of Lactantius one of the prominent Christian intellectuals of the turn of the 3rd and 4th centuries.Having analyzed good and evil presented in 'Divinae Institutiones', the author of the paper concludes that only moral evil is the man's real unhappiness and the only way he can be saved is by following the Christian doctrine which includes a clear explanation of the nature of evil. Material evil is temporary and does not concern what is most essential, namely the human soul whose destiny is eternal happiness. It is often the result of moral evil which should make us look differently at the accusations made by pagans against Christians. Following moral evil or good is the result of choice made by free will and not destiny which indicates the importance of man's personal efforts aspiring to achieve happiness in the future life.The paper aims to analyze the development of early Christian studies concerning the existence of evil in the world and in human beings.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.