There is no one single structuralism, but sets of texts conceivable of as SCHOOLS, if they share a common notional apparatus, or FOCI (FOYERS), if a shared FORUM and mutual knowledge of the texts within one set may be supposed. Consequently, what is usually called the Prague School is not a school, but a focus (foyer). The author presents a complex notional apparatus for treating the LINGUISTIC SIGN when combining the approaches of two structuralist schools, that of Functional-Generative Description (Prague focus) and that of Interpreting Semantics (Paris focus with a Copenhagen affiliation). The linguistic sign is perseveringly treated in the dif-ferential (not re-ferential, nor in-ferential) way, and there are two environments in which this can be done: the abstract system of language and a concrete text (both written and oral). Problems encountered and solutions proposed through that way are presented.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.