In the modern history Poland has experienced several waves of return migration. The recent wave is connected to the Polish accession into the European Union and is a result of a general intensification of international mobility of Polish nationals after the May 1st, 2004. According to the Central Statistical Office the scale of returns to Poland is estimated at 580 thousand in the period 2004-2008. However the estimations differ across various sources of estimations which show difficulties in grasping return migration in statistics and in analysis. The comparison (as based on the Polish Labour Force Survey) of socio-demographic characteristics of Polish emigrants and migrants who decided to return to the country of origin shows that the latter are on average older and hold lower level of education. More than every second return migrant doesn't work after return never mind the level of education. The highest unemployment and inactivity is among those with vocational education and no occupation (gymnasium). On the basis of qualitative research it might be concluded that there are two groups of return migrants: those who returned for good after achieving an aim set in advance (for instance obtaining financial resources; it is called intentionally concluded return), and those who did not decide to re-settle down in Poland and take into consideration another migration (called as intentionally unpredictable return). In the case of the latter ones problems with re-adaptation to the Polish social and economic environment after the return seem to be significant.
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