Debates on fertility increase in Poland cannot ignore that simultaneously there is a strong pressure on employment increase, especially of women's employment. The article focuses on determinants of reconciling between labour market participation and family, considered in terms of structural and cultural conflicts. By referring to results of empirical studies in the field, it is argued that those measures which reduce indirect costs of motherhood are of primary relevance for stimulating both fertility increase and higher employment of women. These measures diminish the structural conflict (the institutional standing not adequately adjusted to women's employment) and cultural conflict (the perception of gender roles neglecting the increasing labour force participation of women). They include: the development of institutional child care, gender-neutral possibilities of flexible work organisation and part-time, leaves and social benefits as well as promotion of the dual earner-dual carer family model and gender equality in employment.
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