Diagnostic methods of medieval medicine are represented in Czech written manuscript collections above all by uroscopic and hematoscopic treatises from medical compendium of unknown Franciscan. It is a translation of the so called Arzneibuch by Ortolf von Bayerland from the 1st half of the 15th century, coming out from canonic Latin diagnostic procedure (Issac Iudaeus, Aegidius). The Old-Czech doctrine about urine examination and pulse measuring is thus reclined by the Latin school tradition. In therapeutic oriented texts minimal attention is devoted to the description of diseases signs. Leprosy is an exception. Described signs correspond to the medieval convention the same as the quoted diagnostic methods of experimental character. These Old-Czech collections differ rather fundamentally from tradition of school medicine in the case of complication (disease) described as 'a night-mare' that is not perceived as a medical problem but as magic one and as a question of faith. The reason of difficulties is not searched in humoral pathology but in an external aggressor, either demon (incubus) or a person able to practise sorcery. Only analysis of recommended therapeutic means having rather ritualised character (apotropaic amulets, ritual taboos, inverse courses) enables bringing to light background of the particular Old-Czech diagnosis.
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