The article presents the course of peace conference between the Ukrainian State (UD) and the Soviet Russia (RSFRR) held in Kiev from May till October 1918. Its convening was anticipated by the German-Russian peace treaty of 3 March 1918. In contrast to negotiations in Lithuanian Brzesc, this time the Bolshevik diplomacy proved to be more efficient than the Ukrainian one. It managed to suppress German military pressure, delay ad acta the signing of the peace treaty, and, owing to the activity of delegation members, achieve a rise in revolutionary spirits in Ukraine. The Ukrainian party did not manage to delimitate the state border or provide protection for its citizens on the territory of the Soviet Russia. The only success of the conference was the signing of preliminary treaty on 12 June 1918. Afterwards, its activity was terminated. Moscow and Kiev held differing views on all fundamental matters: boundary line; the principles of legal succession after the Russian Empire, and, in consequence, the distribution of its equities and assets; civil affiliation of its inhabitants; and finally, the principles of mutual economic relations. UD did not possess effective tools to exert pressure on RSFRR, and its German ally was not willing to enter a conflict with Bolsheviks over somebody else-s interests. The defeat of Central States eliminated the last factor that impelled Moscow to negotiate with Kiev. Similarly to the previous year, Moscow decided to regulate mutual relations on military grounds.
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