THE INVESTMENT PROCESS AND STATE-FINANCED BUILDING ENTERPRISES IN THE KINGDOM OF POLAND - EXEMPLIFIED WITH LUBLIN AND THE LUBLIN PROVINCE (Procesy inwestycyjne i realizacje panstwowych budów w Królestwie Polskim - przyklad Lublina i Lubelszczyzny)
Most of the state-initiated building investments in the Kingdom of Poland were based on the enterprise contract (entrepryza), rooted in the Napoleonic Code. The contract specified the sum for which the entrepreneur selected by the investor undertook to complete the work. The term entrepryza also covered the supply contract (liwerunek), under which the supplier (liwerant) was obliged to supply various products or materials. In the Kingdom of Poland some issues concerning state-financed enterprise contracts were additionally regulated with administrative directives. On the 16th/28th of May 1833 the Administrative Council decreed that all the contracts for works and materials in state investments were to be preceded with a public tender. In the case of works and material supplies the winner was the one who bid the lowest price ('in minus' bidding). In the case of tenders concerning the sale of state property (building plots, buildings or materials from their demolition) the winner was supposed to be the one who bid the highest price ('in plus' bidding). In later years the authorities issued a number of further regulations concerning building enterprises financed by the state. The problem of the tender system was that there were often no bidders. In such cases the enterprise was carried out in the 'administrative way', in which it was provincial, regional or municipal authorities, represented by their clerks, that looked for subcontractors and materials, planned the work and supervised its progress. This method was, however, considered the last resort, since it was viewed as an opportunity for misappropriations. Information on tenders for building contracts in Lublin and the Lublin province were published by state journals (especially The State Journal of Lublin Voivodship and since 1837 The State Journal of Lublin Province). The advertisements published in those periodicals are now a source of data on the chronology, frequency and scope of enterprises financed by the state. At the time in question the province of Lublin was predominantly an agricultural area, Lublin being its only significant urban centre. It was this city that most of the tenders concerned. Nevertheless, neither Lublin nor the province had thriving building contractors. Hence, most of the building enterprises were carried out by external entrepreneurs, mostly from Warsaw. Along with advertisements concerning local tenders, the state journals published information on tenders concerning enterprises to be carried out outside the province. Those appeared mostly after the November Uprising and concerned primarily Russian fortification works.
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