Cracow's special significance in the late 19th and early 20th century, ie. the time of Galician autonomy, is demonstrated by the widespread use of honorific phrases like Poland's Cradle, Mecca of Polishness, and the Athens of Galicia. An analysis of the Przemysl papers, and in particular the texts written by the Cracow correspondents of 'Echo Przemyskie' and 'Gazeta Przemyska', gives us a good insight both into the tastes and interests of their readers as well as the image of Cracow created for that audience. This coverage may be treated as an index of the way in which the local intelligentsia - the most active of all social groups - regarded the ancient capital on the Vistula. It is important to note that the intelligentsia of Przemysl (the third biggest town of the province) occupied at that time a halfway house between Galicia's two main centres, Cracow and Lwów. Both geographically and mentally, the residents of Przemysl were exposed to the pull exerted by these two cities. The extent to which the intelligentsia of Przemysl were involved in the life of Cracow is quite surprising, especially if we take into account the fact that Przemysl is much closer to Lwów than to Cracow. Another intriguing feature of the image of Cracow in the mind of the Przemysl intelligentsia is its ambivalence. Proud of their rapidly developing town, residents of Przemysl did not hesitate to criticize Cracow for its fustiness and lack of initiative in public life
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