From the very outset the general conditions for the development of historical studies in post-war Torun were conducive for research into the more distant past, but the situation of most recent history was quite different. The reason for this state of things lay primarily in objective factors which included the obvious absence of suitable tradition and trained researchers as well as systemic transformations. All these causes meant that for many years an important fragment of history encompassing the whole last century was underestimated and outright falsified. In the middle of 1951 Dr. Witold Lukaszewicz, up to then employed at Lodz University, arrived in Torun for the purpose of stirring the local milieu as regards this particular domain of the historical sciences, and was appointed vice–professor and head of the Chair of Modern History. The year 1954 witnessed the establishment of a new Chair of World History, including the Department of Modern and Contemporary History, headed by W. Lukaszewicz, who was promoted to professor extraordinary. In the Institute of History at the Nicolaus Copernicus University (which in 1969 became known as the Institute of History and Archival Studies), a part of the Faculty of Humanities, Prof. W. Lukaszewicz headed the Chair of Polish and World History of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century (from 1969: the Department of General and Polish History of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century). After the professor's sudden death in November 1975, his post was held in 1976-1984 by docent Karol Grünberg. The 1970s witnessed an intensification of studies about the history of the Second Republic and the People's Republic of Poland owing to, i .a. a discussion at the XI General Convention of Polish Historians held in Torun in 1974. The meeting formulated an urgent postulate calling for the development of thorough research into the history of the People's Republic of Poland, a tendency reflected predominantly by successive changes in the structure of the departments within the Institute. The Department of World and Polish History of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century, headed by Prof. K. Grünberg was first divided ( 1979) into the Department of Military History (head: doc. Wladyslaw Lewandowski, in 1987-1993 - Prof. Mieczyslaw Wojciechowski, and from 1994 - Prof. Waldemar Rezmer) and the Department of the History of People's Poland (head: Prof. R. Kozlowski), and slightly later (1986) - the Department of Polish and General History 1918-1944/45 (head: Prof. Mieczyslaw Wojciechowski). After 1989, the Department of the History of People's Poland became known as the Department of General and Polish History After 1945 (head: Prof. R. Kozlowski, and from 1995 - Prof. Ryszard Sudzinski). In 1993 all the history departments merged in the Faculty of Historical Sciences of the Nicolaus Copernicus University
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