The mass emigration from Poland to Brazil at the end of the 19th century convinced Polish intellectuals about necessity to establish links with emigrants. The main issue was to take care of the emigrant's and their descendants' consciousness of the Polish origin. A Trade - Colonization Association was therefore called into being in 1899 in Lvov. The opinions of the Lvovian activists were summed up in the work of Józef Siemiradzki 'La Nouvelle Pologne. Etat de Parana' (Brussels 1899) which justified the existence of the 'New Poland' in Brazil. It wasn't a long time when the Lvovian campaigners' postulates of the Polish colonization overseas proved to be too optimistic.
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