The present article constitutes the beginning of research in this field in Poland, especially from historical, sociological and political perspective. In the face of virtually lack of more substantial or any scientific materials in Polish concerning this topic, except for sporadic texts in the press, the aim of the article is to assign scientific priorities for this field, as well as goals, methods and needs. One of the main aims is also systematizing and periodizing the relations between the Muslim civilization and Russia. Moreover, this article is an introduction to more advanced research done by the author, concerning the problems of Islamic culture in Russia, its history, structure, acculturation and assimilation with Russian and European culture. It summarizes the current state of research.