The paper deals with renewed interest in nuclear power engineering in Poland and elsewhere. The author looks at the issue of nuclear power development, paying special attention to the nature and significance of the challenges involved. He focuses on the extent to which power sector liberalization could hinder investment in new nuclear power plants and suggests ways of overcoming this problem. In this context, the paper analyzes the competitive position of nuclear power against coal and gas-based energy and assesses various risks related to nuclear power investment in liberalized markets and the ways in which these risks can be mitigated. Special measures are needed for the energy sector as it undergoes liberalization. This especially applies to the sector's structure, the market position of energy companies, the overall regulatory framework, and the approach of government institutions. Energy sector companies need to be able to share risk with other market players.
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