The second generation model of deliberation represented by I. M. Young, A. Gutmann, D. Thompson and J. S. Dryzek can serve as an effective tool for the institutionalization and establishment of the ethics of care. The ethics of care and the second generation model of deliberative democracy both recognize otherness and diversity and create a “policy of difference“ and a more inclusive, more substantial, notion of citizenship. They imply a conception of autonomy of the will that is based on the diversity and uniqueness of human experience. The first generation model of deliberation founded on reason, which implies sameness and universal citizenship, denies otherness and difference. Consequently, it cannot represent the foundation of the ethics of care. On the other hand, the third generation model of deliberation which emphasizes self-interest is contrary to the fundamental principles of deliberative democracy and is deeply flawed.
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