The major branch of industry in the city of Lublin and the province of Lublin in the 19th and 20th c. was food industry, especially beer-making. The two most important breweries have gained their place in the history of Lublin and play an important role in the economy of the city nowadays. The history of beer industry in Lublin started in 1801, when the German industrialist Caspar Gorlitz opened a brewery at Misjonarska Street. Other breweries opened at the same time, including Fryderyk Kern's and Jan Simon's works, have not survived until today. The most prominent industrialists of German origin connected with the history of Lublin breweries were the Vetters. The foundations of the family's enterprise were laid by Karol Rudolf Vetter. In 1835 he opened a plant producing porters and liqueurs in Zawieprzyce near Lubartów, and in 1844 he moved his business to Lublin, opening a distillery and brewery at 15 Bernardynska Street. After his death in 1883, the company was run by his sons August Karol Vetter and Rudolf Vetter. They turned the plant into a modern enterprise specializing in the production of high-quality beers and liquors. The last of the Vetters, Juliusz, died in 1917; the enterprise was inherited by his widow Bronislawa and in 1927 by her brother Tadeusz Karszo-Siedlewski, but the brand name remained unchanged. R.K.Vetter products, especially high-quality vodkas, liqueurs and cognacs, were sold all over Poland and enjoyed high repute. At that time the R.K.Vetter company produced a range of beers differing in colour and taste. The most popular and best-selling brands were the 'Luxus' and 'Jubileuszowe' lagers and the 'Marcowe' brown ale. The new owner of the brewery was killed in action in September 1939; he bequeathed the enterprise to his fiancée, Olga Prorubnikow Slawska. After WW II the brewery was taken over by the state, and in 1949 the State Treasury formally became the owner. At present 15 Bernardynska Street, where Karol Rudol Vetter opened his works over 150 ago, is the seat of the Board of Perla Browary Polskie SA. ('Perla' Polish Breweries plc). Among the largest breweries in Lublin was also Browar Parowy 'Jelen' ('Jelen' Steam Brewery), opened in 1912 at 106 Bychawska Street. Its owner was Hersz Jojna Zylber, a rich Jewish industrialist. Apart from the brewery he also owned a distillery, the liquor-producing plant 'Kosminek' and the 'Helenów' brickyard, which he inherited from his father. Browar Parowy 'Jelen' specialized in kosher beer, which was sold all over Poland and abroad. The owner even wanted to export beer to Palestine but due to the high cost of transport the plan had to be abandoned. Apart from kosher beer, the brewery produced also a common light lager.
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