The beginning of Renaissance in Europe goes back to the 14th century. The territory of present Slovakia was observed by certain refinement of customs and the advancement of the culture life of the Hungarian society under the reign of Louis I the Great (1342-1382). The laudation of combativeness, the patronage of justice and truth, the protection of the weak and allegiance were the dominating themes of heroic and historic songs of minstrels, and the enchantment by beauty and by virtues were the themes of the songs of troubadours, trouveres, and minnesingers. They were a component part of noble and town culture in the 14th and even the 15th centuries. Humanistic society and literary circles contributed markedly to the elevation of culture and the shaping of the intellectual elite of Renaissance Hungary. These men built on the activity of the European 'Devotio moderna' movement, which stressed individualism and mysticism in religiousness, education and inner spiritual culture. In Christian rite the manner of preaching was determined in the past, but even there, novel features were introduced thanks to continuing development. 'Spis Prayer Sermons' (1479) have given an insight to the language and speech culture in communicating the message of God to the congregated believers in the Slovak language in Eastern Slovakia churches.
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