The article exposes the problems connected with defining and measuring the proportionality of election results. It presents current and predominant methods used to measure proportionality and points to some possible alternative approaches to understanding and measuring proportionality. Current discourse gives priority to measuring proportionality using one of two basic methods for determining the proportional division of seats: quotas and largest remainders. Proportionality measured using these formulae is based on the principle of summing up the absolute differences between the share of votes and the share of seats. These measurement methods are known for their ability to best assess election results attained with the aid of the Hare quota and the largest remainders method. The article therefore presents an alternative approach in the 'real quota theory', which provides the theoretical bases for constructing a new RR index and its derivatives the ARR and the SRR indices. This approach to measurement is tied to the principle of dividing seats using the highest averages method, that is, the d'Hondt divisor. These new indices are defined as alternatives to traditional indices of proportionality.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.