The involvement of brain plastic mechanisms in the control of motor functions under normal and pathological conditions is described. These mechanisms are based on a similar principle as the neuronal models of neuronal plasticity - long-term potentiation (LTP), and long-term depression (LTD). In the motor cortex, LTP-like phenomena play a role in strengthening synaptic connections between pyramidal neurons. LTD is important for the elimination of unnecessary inputs to the cortex. The dynamic features of the primary motor cortex activity depend on particular neuronal interconnectivity within this area. The pyramidal cells send horizontal collaterals to adjacent subregions of the primary motor cortex, and so can either excite or inhibit remote pyramidal cells. These connections can expand or shrink depending on actual physiological demands, and play a role in skill learning.
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