Described in the literature dehiscence rate in the adult population is 0.3-3.5%, and in the elderly group as much as 10%. In about 20-45% evisceration becomes a significant risk factor of death in the perioperative period.
<bold>The aim of the study </bold>was to identify the main risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in the adult population.
<bold>Material and methods. </bold>The study included patients treated in the 3rd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Cracow in the period from January 2008 to December 2011, in which at that time laparotomy was performed and was complicated by wound dehiscence in the postoperative period. For each person in a research group, 3-4 control patient were selected. Selection criteria were corresponding age (± 2-3 years), gender, underlying disease and type of surgery performed.
<bold>Results. </bold>In 56 patients (2.9%) dehiscence occurred in the postoperative period with 25% mortality. The group consisted of 37 men and 19 women with the mean age of 66.8 ± 12.6 years. Univariate analysis showed that chronic steroids use, surgical site infection, anastomotic dehiscence/fistula in the postoperative period and damage to the gastrointestinal tract are statistically significant risk factors for dehiscence. Two first of these factors occurred to be independent risk factors in the multivariate analysis. In addition, due to the selection criteria, a group of risk factors should also include male gender, emergency operation, midline laparotomy, colorectal syrgery and elderly age (> 65 years). Logistic regression analysis did not show that a particular surgeon, time of surgery or a particular month (including holiday months) were statistically significant risk factor for dehiscence.
<bold>Conclusions. </bold>Wound dehiscence is a serious complication with relatively small incidence but also high mortality. Preoperative identification of risk factors allows for a more informed consent before patient’s treatment and to take measures to prevent or minimize the consequences of complication associated with it.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.