Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a local inflammatory response with systemic effects and an adverse evolution in 20% of cases. Its mortality rate is 5–10% in sterile and 15–40% in infected pancreatic necrosis. Infection is widely accepted as the main reason of death in AP. The evidence to enable a recommendation about antibiotic prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis is conflicting and difficult to interpret. Up to date, there is no evidence that supports the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with severe AP. Treatment on demand seems to be the better option, avoiding excessive treatment and selection of bacterial. In infected acute pancreatitis, antibiotics of choice are imipenem, meronem or tigecycline in patients allergic to beta-lactams. Also fluconazole must be given in determinate clinical situations.
 Dervenis C, Johnson CD, Bassi C, et al. Diagnosis, objective assessment of severity, and management of acute pancreatitis. Santorini consensus conference. Int J Pancreatol 1999; 25: 195–210
 Bradley EL 3rd. A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, Ga, September 11 through 13, 1992. Arch Surg, 1993; 128: 586–590 http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420170122019
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.