Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a progressive disease that includes a heterogeneous neuropathological spectrum. In the majority of cases, corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is the underlying disease. Clinical heterogeneity is reflected in the clinical presentation of the syndrome and consequently misdiagnosis is common. Our case is of interest because the symptoms, the poor response to L-dopa and the I123 Ioflupane CIT SPECT (DAT-SCAN) results were typical for CBD. However, the magnetic resonance imaging appearance suggested the possibility of a disease of vascular etiology. A 63-year-old woman presented in our outpatient clinic with symptoms of progressive clumsiness in the right arm when performing movements demanding fine motor skills, and mild speech difficulties. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) report described ischemic lesions in the left subcortical parietal areas, in the centrum semiovale, in periventricular white matter, cingulated gyrus bilaterally and moderate ventricle dilatation. A comprehensive neuropsychological study suggested mixed cortical and subcortical involvement. A DAT-SCAN examination showed a diminished dopamine transporter uptake in the left lenticular nucleus, suggesting parkinsonisn. For this patient, CBS-CBD was the most probable diagnosis, whereas vascular CBS was not excluded. This case report illustrates the low diagnostic sensitivity in predicting CBD and the overlap with other related neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, it demonstrates that in CBS, different underlying pathologies can be found at the same individual.
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