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According to the universal biological findings, cellular bodies are covered with an intense coating of glycans. Diversity of glycan chains, linked to lipids and proteins is due to isomeric and conformational modifications of various sugar residues, giving rise to unique carbohydrate structures with a wide range of sequences and anomeric configurations. Proteins and lipids, carrying specific sugar residues (like Galactose) with particular stereochemical properties (sequence, anomery and linkages) are involved in broad spectrums of biological processes, including intercellular and intracellular interactions, microbial adhesion and cellular signaling. By studying the role of specific seterochemical features of galactose (Gal), we have improved our understanding about the normal physiology and diseases in human bodies.
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