The aim was to evaluate vitamin D levels in young healthy Lithuanian males in winter and to find possible associations of vitamin D concentration to body composition, cognitive functioning, emotional state.
Subjects and Methods A total of 130 healthy males (age range, 18–26 years) were divided into the subgroups according to vitamin D concentration. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were employed in the assessment of emotional state. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Trail Making Test and the Digit Symbol Test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
Results The mean concentration of vitamin D for the entire sample was 13.0±5.3 ng/ml. Only 2 persons (1.6%) had the recommended vitamin D level. Nearly half (45.4%) of study participants had vitamin D deficiency. Lower concentrations were associated with a significantly higher score on the POMS confusion-bewilderment scale. A tendency toward a lower mean depression-dejection score in the participants with a sufficient vitamin D level was observed. Vitamin D concentration correlated positively with body mass index (BMI) and inversely with the confusion-bewilderment score.
In conclusion almost half of the young healthy males participating in the study were detected to have vitamin D deficiency in winter. Low vitamin D concentrations are associated with a worse emotional state.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.