We report on two cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium, in one case associated with pneumorrhachis, occurring in two children suffering from the novel influenza H1N1 virus infection. At the admission both children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiological studies showed sizeable pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in both patients. One of the patients also a pneumorrachis. Children were initially treated by intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, antipyretics and a cough sedative. Oral Oseltamivir (60 mg twice daily for 5 days) was administered after the diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Patients’ clinical condition quickly improved and children were discharged with a partial resolution of their radiological findings. Although these conditions are usually self-limiting and without respiratory or systemic consequences, their prompt recognition in children with H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to establish fast and adequate therapy mainly related to the control of cough and the commencement of antiviral treatment.
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