Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a syndrome with symptoms such as rectal bleeding, obstructed defecation, straining at stool and incomplete evacuation, and rectal polyps. In the present study, the clinical features of SRUS among Iranian patients is reviewed. Records of 112 patients diagnosed with SRUS between 1997 and 2007 admitted to a special coloproctology clinic have been analyzed retrospectively. Of 112 patients with SRUS, 61 were male (54.4%) and 51 female (45.6%) with a mean age of 32.2 years (range, 16–64 years). The mean interval between onset of symptoms and final diagnosis of SRUS was 3.8 years (range, 1–14 years). Rectal bleeding (67%) was the most common symptom in both genders, while a feeling of fullness was the least common symptom, observed only in one woman (2%). Incontinence was observed in 4 women (7.8%) and 3 men (4.9%), comprising 6.25% of the total clinical presentations. There were 38 patients (33.9%) with mucosal prolapse and 2 patients (1.8%) with total rectal prolapse. In conclusion, rectal bleeding in the presence of constipation or diarrhea is the main sign for diagnosis of SRUS. This syndrome is usually misdiagnosed; it is frequently confused with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) because the rectal macroscopic and microscopic lesions and true polyps of rectum are similar. We suggest that most of patients who are treating for IBD and true polyps without any response are suffering from SRUS. Regarding misdiagnosis between SRUS and IBD or rectal polyp, the exact prevalence of SRUS has been mistakenly underestimated.
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