In this paper, the finite-element method (FEM) simulation of ultrasound brain surgery is presented. The overheating problem of the post-target bone, which is one of the limiting factors for a successful ultrasound brain surgery, is considered. In order to decrease bone heating, precise choices of frequency, focal pressure, and scanning path are needed. The effect of variations in the mentioned scanning parameters is studied by means of the FEM. The resulting pressure and temperature distributions of a transdural ultrasound brain surgery are simulated by employing the FEM for solving the Helmholtz and bioheat equations in the context of a two-dimensional MRI-based brain model. Our results show that for a suitable value of the frequency, an increase in focal pressure leads to a decrease in the required duration of the treatment and is associated with less heating of the surrounding normal tissue. In addition, it is shown that at a threshold focal pressure, the target temperature reaches toxic levels whereas the temperature rise in the bone is minimal. Wave reflections from sinus cavities, which result in constructive interference with the incoming waves, are one of the reasons for overheating of the bone and can be avoided by choosing a suitable scanning path.
 P.K. Sneed, B. Stea, Thermoradiotherapy for brain tumors, In: M.H. Seegenchmiedet, P. Fessenden, C.C. Vernon, (Eds.), Thermoradiotherapy and Thermotherapy (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin 1996)
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