Chromium is one of the regulated toxic metals in the environment. Naturally, this element exists mainly in two oxidation: Cr(III) and Cr(VI). In general, Cr(VI) is more toxic than Cr(III). Cr(VI) affects human physiology, accumulates in the food chain and causes severe health problems ranging from simple skin irritation to lung carcinoma. Hence, the determination of chromium traces as well as its speciation in environmental samples is a very important task. In recent years, several preconcentration methods such as coprecipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, cloud point extraction, and solid phase extraction have been developed and widely used. The aim of this study is to review the recent literature (mainly last 5 years) on the preconcentration technologies those have been used in chromium removal before the determination step by atomic spectrometric techniques. Their advantages and limitations in application are also evaluated.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.