TiO2 can be prepared in the form of powder, crystals, or thin films. Liquid-phase processing is one of the most convenient and utilized methods of synthesis. It has the advantage of allowing control over the stoichiometry, production of homogeneous materials, formation of complex shapes, and preparation of composite materials. However, there may be some disadvantages such as expensive precursors, long processing times, and the presence of carbon as an impurity. In comparison, the physical production techniques, although environment friendly, are limited by the size of the produced samples which is not sufficient for a large-scale production. The most commonly used solution routes in the synthesis of TiO2 are reviewed.
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