A study using coagulation-flocculation and ultrafiltration (UF)methods for pulp and paper mills’ wastewater (WW)was carried out. The reduction efficiencies of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) and absorbance at 254 nm were the main evaluating parameters. Using coagulation-flocculation, the efficiencies of alum and polyaluminum chloride (PACl)were studied, when used alone and when coupled with flocculant aids. During the coagulation-flocculation process, use of a single coagulant, the coagulant dosage, and the pH, play an important role in determining the coagulation efficiency. At the optimum PACl dosage of 840 mg L−1 and optimum pH of 9.0, turbidity reduction was found to be 94.5%. A combination of inorganic coagulant and flocculant, or polymer was applied, in which PACl was used coupled with the polyelectrolytes Organopol WPB20 and WPB40. PACl coupled with Organopol WPB20 by optimal pH 9 gave a 98.3% reduction of turbidity, 91.9% removal of TSS, and a 60.2% reduction in COD. Ultrafiltration trials were carried out on a pilot scale. A tubular module was used with ceramic membrane. This membrane is a multi-channel membrane with an active surface layer made of Al2O3 and ZrO2. Within the acidic range, the turbidity and TSS were removed at above 99%.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
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