Amperometric biosensors based on a gold planar electrode and on two types of nanocomposite electrodes consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the determination of L-malic acid designed for wine-makers were developed. The biosensors designed for wine-makers were constructed by immobilization of L-malate dehydrogenase and diaphorase within chitosan layers on the surface of the electrodes. The coenzyme NAD+ and the electrochemical mediator ferricyanide were present in the measuring solution. The current resulting from re-oxidation of produced ferrocyanide was measured at a working potential of +300 mV against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The biosensor based on a gold electrode showed linearity over the range 10–520 µM with a detection limit of 5.41 µM. Calibration curves for biosensors utilizing nanocomposites were obtained both with the linear range of 10 to 610 µM. The detection limits were 1.57 and 1.77 µM, respectively. The biosensors showed satisfactory operational stability (no loss of sensitivity after 30 consecutive measurements) and storage stability (90% of the initial sensitivity after one year of storage at room temperature). The results obtained from measurements of wine samples were in a good correlation with the standard HPLC method. Satisfactory biosensor sensitivity, specificity and stability allowed their successful commercialization.
Financed by the National Centre for Research and Development under grant No. SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program:
SYNAT - “Interdisciplinary System for Interactive Scientific and Scientific-Technical Information”.