In this paper, a highly selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for tramadol hydrochloride, a drug used to treat moderate to severe pain, was prepared and its use as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent was demonstrated. The molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (MISPE-HPLC) was developed for selective extraction and determination of tramadol in human plasma and urine. The optimal conditions for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) consisted of conditioning with 1 mL methanol and 1 mL of deionized water at neutral pH, loading of tramadol sample (50 µg L−1) at pH 7.5, washing using 1 mL acetone and elution with 3 × 1 mL of 10% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by checking several substances with similar molecular structures to that of tramadol. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the calibration curve of tramadol (using MIP from human plasma and urine) is linear in the ranges of 6–100 and 3–120 µg L−1 with good precisions (1.9% and 2.9% for 5.0 µg L−1), respectively. The recoveries for plasma and urine samples were higher than 81%. <alternatives> [...] </alternatives>
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