A simple, accurate and reliable method for direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric (ETAAS) determination of chromium in serum and urine samples without any preliminary sample pretreatment is described. Instrumental parameters are optimized in order to define: the most suitable atomizer, optimal temperature program and efficient modifier. An appropriate quantification method is proposed taking into account a matrix interference study. Pyrocoated graphite tubes and wall atomization, pretreatment temperature of 700 °C, atomization temperature of 2600 °C, hydrogen peroxide as modifier and standard addition calibration are recommended. The accuracy of the method proposed for Cr determination in serum and urine was confirmed by comparative analysis of parallel samples after wet or dry ashing as well as by the analysis of two certified reference materials: Serum, Clin Rep 1 and Lypochek Urine, level 1. The detection and determination limits achieved for both matrices are 0.08 µg/L and 0.15 µg/L respectively. The relative standard deviation varied between 15 and 18 % for the chromium content in the samples in the range 0.08–0.2 µg/L and between 4 and 7 % for the chromium content in the range 0.2–2.0 µg/L for both matrices. <alternatives> [...] </alternatives>
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